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Impact on People

Exploited labor

Common consumer goods industries, like the textile, clothing, leather, and footwear (TCLF) sector, often exploit vulnerable workers to increase profit margins. Global demand for products using forced labor continues to rise due to a growing population and an appetite for cheap goods.

War and conflict

Conflict over natural resources like oil for energy and minerals for technology spark 40 percent of civil wars. When extractions from poor, resource-rich countries are exported to supply wealthier countries, the needs and concerns of locals are often ignored.

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Credit: Akintunde Akinleye / Climate Visuals Countdown

Replanting the paramo of Guerrero

Credit: Ivan Camilo Ospina / Climate Visuals Countdown

Habitat depletion

When one community consumes more resources than are available locally, they require resources (e.g. forests, water, and fossil fuels) from other communities to meet their needs. The people in the communities they take from are often left with a depleted ecosystem and resource shortages themselves.

Small business suffering

Mass production and subsidization overtake small businesses locally and abroad. When a powerful economy exports goods into a country or community for a lower price than local goods, it puts small businesses out of work and eventually makes those communities reliant on imports, unable to self-sustain.

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Credit: Tashiya de Mel / Climate Visuals Countdown

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Credit: Supratim Bhattacharjee / Climate Visuals Countdown

Sacrifice zones

Production sites like mines, factories, landfills, and industrial farms are often placed in marginalized communities. Waste, toxins, pesticides, and other pollutants disproportionally affect the people in these communities who are already less likely to have access to healthcare, stable infrastructure, and legal support.

Mental health

In consumer cultures where sales are the main measure of growth, companies push advertising to convince us we are incomplete without more products. This messaging shapes our definitions of beauty, success, sexuality, masculinity, status, and ourselves. 

When working to reduce the negative impact purchases may have on other people, start by gaining an understanding of where your products come from and what labor and resources were required.


Support companies making an effort to pay fair wages, mitigate resource conflict, consider product end-of-life impact, and advertise honestly.

Of course, this can become an overwhelming task, especially if we consume a lot of stuff. This is a great reason to minimize purchases. The less we buy, the less research is required. See more possible solutions to harmful consumption on the consumer solutions page.

Moving toward products that do less harm

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Sources and inspirations

"Forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking." International Labor Organization,, Published Sept. 2022.

"Extractive Industries and Conflict" United Nations,, Published 2012.

Liu, J. "Consumption Patterns and biodiversity." Royal Society., Accessed Oct. 23, 2022

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